Feb 13, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – Because of a suboptimal match between this year’s flu vaccine and circulating influenza B viruses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended changing one of the three strains used in flu vaccines for the Northern Hemisphere next fall and winter.The WHO’s choices for the two influenza A strains remain the same as last year, according to new reports published on the WHO Web site this week. The agency recommended keeping the influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 variants used in this year’s vaccine, both of which are labeled Brisbane strains.The influenza B component of this year’s flu vaccine was from the Yamagata lineage, but the proportion of strains from the Victoria lineage continues to increase and has become predominant in many countries, the WHO said. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) most recent flu surveillance report, for the week of Feb 1 through 7, said that of 78 influenza B viruses that were characterized, 55 belonged to the Victoria lineage.Health officials in the United States have discussed including both lineages in the seasonal vaccine to address the unpredictable prevalence of the influenza B strains, especially since a vaccine against one lineage offers little protection against the other.Last year the WHO recommended a total vaccine makeover for the 2008-09 flu season because of a mismatch to circulating strains the previous season.Each February the WHO assesses the flu virus strains in circulation before picking the strains for the next Northern Hemisphere flu season. It takes about 6 months for vaccine manufacturers to grow the viruses in chicken eggs and formulate them into trivalent (three-strain) vaccines. Changing one or two strains is not unusual.The WHO recommends the following for next season’s vaccine:For the H1N1 component, a strain similar to A/Brisbane/59/2007For the H3N2 component, a strain similar to A/Brisbane/10/2007For the B component, a strain similar to B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, replacing B/Florida/4/2006The Brisbane strains of H1N1 and H3N2 will be used in this year’s vaccine for the Southern Hemisphere, where the flu season runs from May through October, according to the WHO. However, the influenza B component of the Southern Hemisphere’s vaccine is similar to B/Florida/4/2006.In its full report on the strain selection, the WHO said that between September 2008 and January 2009, Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania all reported influenza activity. Though levels were lower than in the same period last year, activity was higher in some European countries, including the United Kingdom, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Poland, and the Netherlands.In the Northern Hemisphere, countries such as Japan, Tunisia, and European countries reported regional outbreaks of H3N2 in December and January. In the United States, H1N1 viruses predominated, while in Canada, B viruses were more common.H1N1 strains that show resistance to the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), one of two neuraminidase inhibitors recommended for treatment, predominated in most regions of the world. No such resistance was seen in H3N2 or B viruses, and there were no reports of viruses resistant to zanamivir (Relenza).See also:CDC flu surveillance reportJan 16 CIDRAP News story “Experts consider 4-strain flu vaccine to fight B viruses”
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Tottenham have joined the interest in Manchester United defender Chris Smalling. Smalling Smalling’s permanent move to Roma could be scuppered if the Serie A side fail to qualify for the Champions League, says Corriere dello Sport. Tottenham and Everton have made contact with United over Smalling, while he is also under consideration at Juventus.Advertisement United chief executive Ed Woodward has, in turn, increased his asking price for the star to £16.5million, and the deal in total could set Roma back £33million when wages are taken into consideration. Read Also:Manchester United rejects Roma’s Bid for Chris Smalling Roma wouldn’t be able to sanction such a move if they end up playing in the Europa League next season, the report claims, with Smalling set to accept a pay cut in his current United wages but keen on a longer deal. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Loading… Promoted Content9 Facts You Should Know Before Getting A TattooThe Funniest Prankster Grandma And Her GrandsonWho Is The Most Powerful Woman On Earth?The Best Cars Of All Time10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read MoreReal World Archaeological Finds That Would Stump Indiana Jones5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend BetterTop 10 Most Romantic Nations In The World10 Phones That Can Easily Fit In The Smallest PocketYou’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of Anime
Black Stars coach Kwesi Appiah has dropped hints that returnees Kevin-Prince Boateng and the Ayew brothers are not be guaranteed automatic call-up places for upcoming assignments.Last week, the Ghana Football Association confirmed Kevin Boateng, who resigned two years ago stating playing for club and country had a toll on his health, had ended his self-imposed exile and ready to rejoin his international teammates.Andre and Jordan Ayew also rescinded their decisions after talks with President John Mahama at the Flagstaff house last week.Ahead of Ghana’s crucial final 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifier against Zambia in Kumasi later this year, Appiah has intimated that the announcements by the trio does not mean they will automatically be invited to the team.“I always believe it is important all Ghanaian players make themselves available for selection,” said coach Appiah“And is you the coach that will decide whether you need this player at a particular time and it depends on the game that you are going to play and the tactics and if they can fit in you bring them in but as to they will by all means be in does not come in.” Ghana need a draw against the Chipolopolo to remain Group D leaders and progress to the play-offs.