Geologists resisted evidence for catastrophic flooding because they wanted to distance themselves from Genesis.We’ve recounted the story of J Harlan Bretz several times over the years. His unconventional hypothesis about the origin of the Channeled Scablands in eastern Washington by catastrophic floods was resisted by the consensus of geological opinion. Now, two geologists propose that the massive canyons there and on Mars did not take as much water as previously believed. The write-ups of their findings reinforce what we’ve stated about anti-Biblical bias against catastrophism. Perron and Vinditti write in Nature,When the geologist J Harlen Bretz proposed in the 1920s that the Channeled Scablands were created by a catastrophic flood, his ideas were attacked relentlessly by geologists who subscribed to the mainstream view that erosion is slow and steady, and who wanted to distance their profession from the notion of a biblical deluge.Bretz’s triumph over his critics provides a classic case of a maverick overcoming a reigning paradigm through his personal courage and persistence, wielding incontrovertible evidence.The new consensus about the Scablands is strong, but needs modification, Perron and Vinditti say.Although the flood origin of the Channeled Scablands is no longer disputed, the sizes of the individual floods remain uncertain. It has become common practice to place an upper bound on the flow rate of the floods by assuming that they filled the present-day canyons to the brim. Estimated flood magnitudes based on this assumption range up to 60 cubic kilometres per hour — nearly 100 times the average flow rate of the Amazon River today. But these estimates might be much too large. Glaciologists have argued that it is difficult for ice sheets to store enough water to produce such enormous floods. The brimful-flood model also requires the unlikely scenario that each flood passing through the canyons was larger than the one that preceded it, because the canyon deepens as each successive flood erodes the bedrock.Now, Isaac Larsen (University of Massachusetts, Amherst) and Michael Lamb (Caltech) argue that about 5 to 10 times less water was required to carve the big canyons. Writing in Nature, they propose a “threshold shear stress model” to replace the brimful model. Their model has implications for other canyons on Earth, and for fluid-carved canyons on Mars as well.The threshold shear stress model implies that canyons in the Channeled Scablands were eroded by floods with depths that were a fraction of the relief of the final canyon (Fig. 4). This physics-based finding is consistent with several recent investigations of canyon carving at other sites on Earth and Mars: for example, those where bedrock incision by plucking or toppling of jointed rock occurs at depths less than brim-full, those where terrace chronology indicates multiple episodes of canyon incision, or those where lakes in breached craters contain insufficient water volumes to fill downstream channels.Our results suggest that the morphology of canyons (for example, terraces, valley shapes and slope profiles) on Earth and Mars could reveal information about both the history and discharge of flooding that warrants further investigation. The outburst floods that carved the Channeled Scablands were extraordinary under either end-member model, but predictions of discharges from the threshold shear stress model are five- to ten-fold smaller. On Mars, owing to the low permeability of aquifers, it has been challenging to reconcile the very large reconstructed brim-full discharges in outflow channels with a subsurface flood source. Given the proposed similarity in incision mechanics for outflow channels on Mars and in the Channeled Scablands, the threshold shear stress model provides a link between the physics of groundwater-sourced floods and terraces observed in orbital data, implying longer duration, lower discharge floods, or multiple floods on early Mars.NASA’s Astrobiology Magazine sums it up this way: “A new model of canyon-forming floods from UMass Amherst and CalTech researchers suggests that deep canyons can be formed in bedrock by significantly less water than previously thought.” Two consequences of this change of view seem evident. For one, it no longer seems necessary to presume that Mars had as much water as previously thought. A second implication is that floods on Earth can accomplish much more geological change with far less water. Rethinking the amount of water required “could reveal information about both the history and discharge of flooding that warrants further investigation.” This sounds like a shot in the arm for catastrophism.It’s not necessary to propose multiple floods (“tens of floods”) for the Channeled Scablands. Larsen and Lamb cite a 1985 paper by one guy for that idea. The important point is the tremendous power of water. If only 10% or 20% of the amount previously assumed could carve the Channeled Scablands, then it follows that a global flood would have correspondingly more power to alter Earth’s crust and sediments. It becomes more credible to associate a single catastrophe with the miles of sediments and deep canyons found all over the Earth, particularly on the Colorado Plateau where they are exposed so well with flat contacts speaking of a short period of time. Creation geologist Steve Austin mentioned “plucking” decades ago as a process that can accelerate bedrock erosion.Notice the anti-Biblical bias of the geologists of Bretz’s day. Perron and Vinditti say his views were “attacked relentlessly” because they seemed to support a Biblical flood account. The attacks went on for decades! Bretz stood alone against the establishment between the 1920s and the 1960s, when his views were finally accepted. (Remember that this was the period between the Scopes Trial and the Darwin Centennial.) We should not be discouraged if today’s secular materialists exhibit the same visceral reaction against intelligent design or creation geology. It’s hard to overcome an entrenched, powerful worldview. Its proponents sometimes never change. New views often gain traction one funeral at a time. Creation speakers have seen younger students be much more accepting of young-earth evidences than their hoary old dogmatic professors. We must keep the evidence out there where open minded young people can see it.Resource: Dr. Terry Mortenson’s DVD “Deep Time Evolution” from AiG has damning quotes from secular geologists from the 1790s and beyond, showing that they had made up their minds to hate Genesis before even looking at the evidence. Mortenson’s PhD specialty is the history of geology (see also his book The Great Turning Point for even more citations). He explains how evolutionists and creationists both have the same evidence, but their worldview drives their interpretation of the evidence. It takes courageous mavericks like J Harlan Bretz to stand against a crowd. Unfortunately, even Bretz did not take the implications of his finds far enough. Had he examined even larger canyons than the scablands, he might have been led to propose a world-wide flood. (Visited 96 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
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SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material Importance of industry leaders Emerging technology investment “These initiatives will contribute to the development of young people in Africa by equipping them with up to date maths and science skills as well as life skills such as critical thinking in the current knowledge economy,” MTN said in a statement this week. According to the statement, such innovations have the potential to create new industries and offer employment to Africa’s growing young population. South Africa’s MTN Group has signed a memorandum of understanding with the USA’s Intel Corporation which will see the two companies collaborating to accelerate the deployment of broadband access in Africa and the Middle East. Other areas of collaboration include joint efforts by the MTN Foundation and Intel Education’s corporate social responsibility initiatives to equip students and teachers with technology skills. “MTN recognises the strategic value of partnering with an industry player of Intel’s calibre and stature,” De Faria said. 2 August 2010 According to the statement, the memorandum also underpins the importance of industry leaders such as Intel and MTN to collaborate in order to bring sustainable ICT development to the Africa and Middle East region. Intel’s venture capital division, Intel Capital, and the MTN Group will also invest in emerging technology companies that are innovative and demonstrate a potential for advancing the ICT sector by developing products that contribute to solving typically African business and social problems. “In this way we can accelerate Africa’s entry into the 21st century knowledge and digital economy which will give its citizens economic opportunities similar to those in developed countries,” said Graylish. MTN senior vice-president for innovation Christian de Faria said the company believed the memorandum of understanding would facilitate the establishment of joint initiatives to support both their broadband strategy as well as corporate social responsibility projects. “Both companies have expertise in different aspects of ICT deployment and together we can accelerate bridging the digital divide on the continent.” The collaboration covers a wide spectrum of initiatives, including areas such as broadband access through pushing WiMax deployment, offering affordable PC bundles for ordinary African consumers and entrepreneurs, and introducing cost-effective internet browsing devices. “Strategies developed by MTN and Intel to connect the next generation of broadband users in Africa and the Middle East were a perfect fit, which is why we went into discussions to collaborate,” said Intel sales and marketing vice president Gordon Graylish. Skills development
A recent scientific discovery in South Africa, ancient fungi-like fossils, have once again put the country on the map in the palaeontology field. It raises questions about the oldest fungi found, evolution, and whether scientists have been looking in the wrong places.Ancient fungi-like fossils have been found in South Africa’s Northern Cape. (Image: South African Tourism, via Flickr, CC BY 2.0)Priya PitamberA group of international researchers have discovered fungi-like fossils in rocks dating back 2.4 billion years, in South Africa. This latest development once again displays the country’s central role in global scientific research.The fossils were found in the Ongeluk Formation in the Northern Cape, which was under water at the time the organisms were alive.“Unless they represent an unknown branch of fungus-like organisms, the fossils imply that the fungal clade is considerably older than previously thought, and that fungal origin and early evolution may lie in the oceanic deep biosphere rather than on land,” reads the researchers’ paper, published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution. “The Ongeluk discovery suggests that life has inhabited submarine volcanics for more than 2.4 billion years.”SignificanceDuring a routine microscopic study of the lava, Professor Birger Rasmussen, from the Western Australian School of Mines at Curtin University, found the microfossils.“I was looking for minerals to date the age of the rock when my attention was drawn to a series of vesicles and when I increased the magnification of the microscope I was startled to find what appeared to be exquisitely preserved fossilised microbes,” he said.At 2.4 billion years old, does the Ongeluk formation yield the world’s oldest fungi? Bengtson et al https://t.co/yOCQbDgtWO pic.twitter.com/2fiqtHFcMe— NatureEcoEvo (@NatureEcoEvo) April 24, 2017“It quickly became apparent that cavities within the volcanic rocks were once crawling with life.“The new discovery has implications for the evolution of life on Earth, representing the earliest evidence of possible fungi by 1 to 2 billion years, and the earliest evidence of eukaryotic life by at least 500 million years,” Rasmussen said.He hopes this research will be able to answer fundamental questions about evolution on Earth, and beyond.LocationThe fossils were found in rock formed from bubbly lava that was once upon a time, beneath the sea.Professor Stefan Bengtson, from the Swedish Museum of Natural History, was the lead on the research team. He told the BBC that scientists previously looked for the oldest fossil fungi on land or in shallow seas, but never in the deep sea.“The deep biosphere (where the fossils were found) represents a significant portion of the Earth, but we know very little about its biology and even less about its evolutionary history,” he said.The research paper was co-authored by scientists from the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm.Sources: BBC, Nature Ecology & Evolution, and Curtin UniversityWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
See All This is the Amazfit Bip under sunlight. The reflective color screen is lovely and easy to read. Photo by Rick Broida/CNET It was about a year ago that I first encountered the Amazfit Bip, which at $80 (down from $100) seemed way too good to be true. An always-on screen, a heart-rate monitor, built-in GPS and a battery good for weeks, not days? Yes please.Since then, I’ve shared numerous deals, the lowest being around $61. And I even drew the attention of CNET’s smartwatch expert Scott Stein, who reviewed the Bip and found it “the best low-key casual smartwatch around.”Today, and for a limited time, Amazon has the Amazfit Bip in your choice of colors for $67.49. That’s obviously not the all-time best deal I’ve seen, but it’s close — and it’s excellent.See it at AmazonRead Stein’s review if you want to learn more about the product. I’ll simply add — and reiterate — that even if you use none of the other features, the notifications alone make this worth having. See who’s calling, read incoming texts, get calendar alerts and more, all without touching your phone.I’ll also note that Walmart currently has the Bip for $67.99, which I mention only because of the return option: If you decide you don’t like the Bip, you might find it easier to return to a retail store than to box up and ship. Aug 31 • Best places to sell your used electronics in 2019 See it News • Amazfit Bip smartwatch dips to $64 (Update: Expired) Comments Aug 31 • Your phone screen is gross. Here’s how to clean it Tags Best laptops for college students: We’ve got an affordable laptop for every student. Best live TV streaming services: Ditch your cable company but keep the live channels and DVR. See It Share your voice Sep 1 • iPhone 11, Apple Watch 5 and more: The final rumors CNET may get a commission from retail offers. Amazfit Bip Apple $79 $79 reading • The Bip is back: $67.49 for this versatile Apple Watch alternative Walmart 4:00 Review • Amazfit Bip review: You won’t believe how great a budget smartwatch can be Read more: The best smartwatches for 2019(This story originally posted on February 11, 2019. The deal is still active as of now.)CNET’s Cheapskate scours the web for great deals on PCs, phones, gadgets and much more. Note that CNET may get a share of revenue from the sale of the products featured on this page. Questions about the Cheapskate blog? Find the answers on our FAQ page. Find more great buys on the CNET Deals page and follow the Cheapskate on Facebook and Twitter! Amazfit Bip vs. Fitbit Versa: Which is more like Pebble? 10 Now playing: Watch this: • Mentioned Above Amazfit Bip (kokoda green) Aug 31 • iPhone XR vs. iPhone 8 Plus: Which iPhone should you buy? Apple Wearable Tech The Cheapskate
MONACO — Heritage Group, headed up by Silversea Cruises chairman Manfredi Lefebvre d’Ovidio, will own 85% of luxury travel company Abercrombie & Kent while A&K founder Geoffrey Kent will own 15% in a new strategic partnership announced today.Kent will continue to be Chairman and CEO of the operating company, officially Abercrombie & Kent Group of Companies S.A., while Lefebvre will become Chairman of Abercrombie & Kent Holding.Kent and Lefebvre have known each other for more than 20 years and have also been business partners, having acquired the MV Explorer in 1992.Lefebvre built Silversea Cruises, created by his father in 1994 with the purchase of two ships, Silver Cloud and Silver Wind, into a leading luxury and expedition cruise line. He is now the Chairman and former owner of Silversea.In summer 2018 Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. (RCCL) acquired a 66% stake in Silversea Cruises. A&K is a separate and unique investment by Heritage, led by Lefebvre, and does not involve Silversea, according to a statement about this latest deal.More news: Marriott Int’l announces 5 new all-inclusive resorts in D.R. & MexicoKent is credited with creating the first luxury tented photographic safaris in 1962 in Kenya and built A&K into the world’s leading luxury and adventure travel company.“Abercrombie & Kent is the finest luxury travel company in the world, and I am honoured to be able to partner with Geoffrey Kent to help this remarkable company continue its record growth,” said Lefebvre.Kent added: “I am very excited to be working with Manfredi. I cannot think of a better or more experienced partner for the next phase of A&K’s growth.”The closing is expected to be completed later in the year, subject to customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals. Share Travelweek Group Tags: Abercrombie & Kent, Acquisitions, Silversea Cruises Abercrombie & Kent’s 100% joint acquisition deal officially aligns luxury company with Silversea’s Lefebvre Posted by Tuesday, February 12, 2019 << Previous PostNext Post >>