Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 22 2019The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today permitted marketing of the first medical device to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The prescription-only device, called the Monarch external Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (eTNS) System, is indicated for patients ages 7 to12 years old who are not currently taking prescription ADHD medication and is the first non-drug treatment for ADHD granted marketing authorization by the FDA.”This new device offers a safe, non-drug option for treatment of ADHD in pediatric patients through the use of mild nerve stimulation, a first of its kind,” said Carlos Peña, Ph.D., director of the Division of Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices in the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “Today’s action reflects our deep commitment to working with device manufacturers to advance the development of pediatric medical devices so that children have access to innovative, safe and effective medical devices that meet their unique needs.”ADHD is a common disorder that begins in childhood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior and very high levels of activity. The diagnosis of ADHD requires a comprehensive evaluation by a health care professional. For a person to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity must be chronic or long-lasting, impair the person’s functioning and cause the person to fall behind normal development for his or her age.The Monarch eTNS System is intended to be used in the home under the supervision of a caregiver. The cell-phone sized device generates a low-level electrical pulse and connects via a wire to a small patch that adheres to a patient’s forehead, just above the eyebrows, and should feel like a tingling sensation on the skin. The system delivers the low-level electrical stimulation to the branches of the trigeminal nerve, which sends therapeutic signals to the parts of the brain thought to be involved in ADHD. While the exact mechanism of eTNS is not yet known, neuroimaging studies have shown that eTNS increases activity in the brain regions that are known to be important in regulating attention, emotion and behavior.The stimulation should feel like a tingling sensation on the skin, and the device should be used in the home under the supervision of a caregiver during periods of sleep. Clinical trials suggest that a response to eTNS may take up to 4 weeks to become evident. Patients should consult with their health care professional after four weeks of use to assess treatment effects.Related StoriesNew study reveals ‘clutch’ proteins responsible for putting T cell activation ‘into gear’New therapy shows promise in preventing brain damage after traumatic brain injuryNew network for children and youth with special health care needs seeks to improve systems of careThe Monarch eTNS System’s efficacy in treating ADHD was shown in a clinical trial that compared eTNS as the sole treatment, or monotherapy, to a placebo device. A total of 62 children with moderate to severe ADHD were enrolled in the trial and used either the eTNS therapy each night or a placebo device at home for four weeks. The trial’s primary endpoint was improvement on a clinician-administered ADHD Rating Scale, ADHD-RS. ADHD-RS scales are used to monitor severity and frequency of ADHD symptoms. A higher score is indicative of worsening symptoms. The ADHD-RS uses questions about the patient’s behavior, such as whether they have difficulty paying attention or regularly interrupt others. The trial showed that subjects using the eTNS device had statistically significant improvement in their ADHD symptoms compared with the placebo group. At the end of week four, the average ADHD-RS score in the active group decreased from 34.1 points at baseline to 23.4 points, versus a decrease from 33.7 to 27.5 points in the placebo group.The most common side effects observed with eTNS use are: drowsiness, an increase in appetite, trouble sleeping, teeth clenching, headache and fatigue. No serious adverse events were associated with use of the device.The Monarch eTNS System should not be used in children under seven years of age. It should not be used in patients with an active implantable pacemaker or with active implantable neurostimulators. Patients with body-worn devices such as insulin pumps should not use this device. The eTNS System should not be used in the presence of radio frequency energy such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because it has not been tested in an MRI machine, or cell phones, because the phone’s low levels of electromagnetic energy may interrupt the therapy.The FDA reviewed the Monarch eTNS System through the de novo premarket review pathway, a regulatory pathway for low- to moderate-risk devices of a new type. This action creates a new regulatory classification, which means that subsequent devices of the same type with the same intended use may go through the FDA’s 510(k) premarket process, whereby devices can obtain marketing authorization by demonstrating substantial equivalence to a predicate device.The FDA granted marketing authorization of the Monarch eTNS System to NeuroSigma. Source:https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm636379.htm
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Credit: CC0 Public Domain Explore further Citation: Apple takes a very un-tech approach to solving fake news: human editors (2018, March 20) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-apple-un-tech-approach-fake-news.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. ©2018 USA Today Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. We all agree there’s too much disinformation on the Web. YouTube tries to crack down on conspiracy videos Russians and bots played havoc with Fakebook and Twitter during the 2016 election, because nearly anyone can join and post on social media networks and much of the ad-buying is automated.This week Apple said it was serious about tackling the issue, and bought a magazine subscription app with popular titles (including Consumer Reports, Vanity Fair and the New Yorker) to beef up its News smartphone and tablet app.Meanwhile the YouTube video network, fighting a backlash against conspiracy videos that anyone can post to its platform, went in a totally different direction to battle fakeness—turning to crowd-sourced Wikipedia to provide viewers with links to what it hopes are authoritative viewpoints.Let’s take a look at the two approaches.Apple’s News app is on the front page of every iPhone and iPad, and promises to give users a curated, personalized view of the news, with bigger pictures and fonts than seen when reading stories in apps or on the Safari browser. Apple said in 2016 the News app had over 70 million users, and while it hasn’t updated the numbers, it does say the app has grown substantially since.At the South by Southwest conference in Austin, Texas this week, Apple senior vice-president Eddy Cue said his app is differentiated from what we see on Facebook and Twitter in that it’s vetted by human curators and thus, more authentic.”We want the best articles, we want them to look amazing and we want them to be from trusted sources,” Cue said, per Deadline. “So we don’t have a lot of the issues going around.”On Apple News, publishers big and small can sign up to have their work included in the app, for free. But unlike on Facebook, on News, would-be publishers need to submit at least three articles to Apple before being approved.Not so at YouTube, where some 400 hours of video is uploaded every minute, without prior oversight.The video network has been caught in a two-year battle against conspiracy and extremist videos showing up as legitimate news videos, and it has taken several steps to fix the issue, by de-monetizing them and removing their ads, and now, also at South by Southwest, in announcing a new strategy.YouTube will add links from the crowd-sourced Wikipedia online encyclopedia to conspiracy videos. If you’re scratching your head on this, so are we.Wikipedia is even easier to game than the YouTube algorithm. Anyone can edit a post and add their spin to it —whether that be the biography of President Donald Trump, the history of the Santa Monica Pier or a post about the blogger Lance Ulanoff.The longtime tech journalist woke up one morning and found that his listing has been updated, falsely, to say that he was “a member of the French Foreign Legion.”It eventually got updated, but Ulanoff doesn’t think YouTube will find much success with its Wikipedia fix.”It will be like a band-aid that will work at first, and within a few days it will be tattered and dirty,” he says.The problem, he notes, is that once Wikipedia is used to verify the bogus videos on YouTube, those same people who make and post the videos will descend upon Wikipedia to synch the facts with their point of view, he says. “It’s a very slippery slope.”The bottom line: kudos to Apple for a terrific app that has so far not experienced the issues found on Twitter, Facebook and YouTube, and for the video network —nice idea, but it’s back to the drawing board. Next?
(c)2019 U.S. TodayDistributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. Point a camera at yourself, attract an audience and get rewarded for your efforts by YouTube. Pose with a product and make money from brands on Instagram. Develop a following on Facebook, and the social network will share ad revenues with you.Quit your job (or school), become a social media “influencer” and potentially make tens of thousands of dollars, if not even millions.It’s not easy to pull off, but if David Dobrik, Colleen Ballinger and Joey Graceffa could do it, why not you?The trio is among the 90,000 social media fans, stars and industry pros who will descend on Anaheim this week, as early as Wednesday night, for the annual fan fest/industry gathering that is known as VidCon.Here, young fans arrive with their parents hoping to meet and greet with their favorite YouTubers, while many would-be YouTubers come to learn from experts like Graceffa about how to succeed as an influencer.”YouTube still dominates because it pays the most revenues to creators,” says Joe Gagliese, the co-founder of Viral Nation, which represents influencers and works with brands on their marketing campaigns. “And Instagram is getting close, in terms of importance to influencers.”Facebook-owned Instagram doesn’t pay creators for posting their work. Instead, they go to agencies like ViralNation, which sells their posts to brands.Facebook itself for years has talked about sharing ad revenues with creators via its Watch program, but the program to offer ads in exchange for revenues is being used by just tens of thousands of people, says Facebook, compared to “millions” on YouTube, according to the company.Additionally, Facebook’s entry hurdles are stricter than YouTube: 10,000 followers and 30,000 one-minute views of three-minute videos, versus 1,000 followers and 4,000 minutes of watch time.VidCon is 10 years old, YouTube is 14 years old and established stars like Graceffa, PewDiePie and Ryan, the 7-year-old kid who reviews toys, have built giant fan bases, attracting multimillions of views daily.Is it too late to get in? Even after all these years, the offer still sounds really enticing. Citation: On YouTube or Instagram? Here’s what it takes to make money as social media ‘influencer’ (2019, July 12) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-youtube-instagram-money-social-media.html Explore further Not according to Gagliese. “Honestly, it’s never too late,” he says. “YouTube has more viewers this year than last year and new influencers are emerging from all over the world.”How much money can you make? It depends on how many people watch your videos, or follow you on Instagram.Gagliese spells it out for us:YOUTUBE:Between 6 to 12 cents per view. So on the low end, a July video exploring Japanese vending machines by the young YouTuber named Safiya Nygaard brought in 6.8 million views, which could already be worth $408,000.INSTAGRAM:This depends upon the influencer and their level of engagement, but a “micro-influencer,” one with 10,000 to 50,000 active fans, “used to only pick up only a couple hundred bucks, now they’re getting a few thousand per post,” he says.Influencers with up to 1 million followers will see $10,000 per post, while 1 million followers and up can charge $100,000 or more.The most popular influencers are bringing in $250,000 to $500,000 per post, for posing with brands and featuring them on their Instagram Story pages, which allow direct links back to the brand, he adds.But it’s not easy.”People underestimate how hard it is,” says Gagliese. It’s a regular full-time job writing, shooting and editing videos and uploading them, adding all the correct tags and descriptions to make sure they get discovered, and that’s just today’s work. On the next day, they have to continue and do it all over again, hustling to build an audience.And once they do that, he adds, they have to keep it up.”They have to stay on top of everything.”And since you’re judged by how many followers or views you have, a cottage industry has emerged of shady companies offering to “buy” views and followers, which leads to digital “influencer fraud,” something brands are very concerned about.Tim Sovay, the chief operating officer of marketing agency CreatorIQ is on a mission to weed out fraud.”Brands want a better understanding of who they’re partnering with, and what the social metrics really are,” he says.Meanwhile, besides talking up issues like fraud and how to legitimately get more views in industry sessions at VidCon, the real action is on the trade show floor, where fans get to meet their favorite online celebs.VidCon “is a convergence of modern-day pop culture, celebrity and fandom,” Sovay says. “The most culturally relevant celebrities, for 13- to 24-year-olds, are on the floor, and there’s a fandom unlike anywhere else.” And brands like M&Ms, Taco Bell and Kia are on the floor as well, to “try and find organic ways to integrate into the event, to get their message in front of the fans.”VidCon’s trade show floor opens Thursday, and the convention concludes Saturday night. Fan tickets start at $170. YouTube looks to dilute nasty programming with curated educational playlists Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
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PTI SP spokesman Rajendra Chaudhary said that Akhilesh Yadav has given instructions to his MLAs to vote for Kumar. and the country where the aircraft is registered is granted the opportunity to help, Indian forwards were desperate to make potential forays into the striking circle. "If you don’t find them in that first day,Donald Trump’s nine-sentence statement about Hillary Clinton at a Saturday Pennsylvania rally ended up taking 25 minutes when the GOP presidential nominee careened from topic to topic.000, 512MB of RAM and the Android Wear wearable operating system. why did the Football Association of Wales (FAW) appoint him? but so are England. an official said on Wednesday.
Senator Carl Levin (D-MI), 36. All bar Ferrari made second runs in the final seconds during which Massa gate-crashed Q3 with a flying final lap that pushed his one-time Ferrari team-mate Fernando Alonso down to 11th. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), said Soyinka was only entertaining Nigerians with his mastery of the English language. with the exception of the CDC. who confirmed the matter Wednesday, he saw that article, Department of Justice/Reuters An unexploded metal bomb filled with explosive powder and lined with metal pellets was entered as evidence in the trial of Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. the allegations and counter-allegations by the leaders and MLAs of the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) and the public show of differences have come to a temporary halt.
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