Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 30 2018The baroreceptor reflex is a fascinating medical phenomenon. The reflex is controlled by specialized neurons that react in just a fraction of a second to keep blood pressure fairly consistent.For example, when you stand up, your blood pressure normally drops–rapidly. Yet you don’t faint thanks to baroreceptors, which tell your heart rate to increase and push more blood to your brain.A new Scripps Research study pinpoints the two proteins that sense blood pressure and help control the baroreceptor reflex, according to research published recently in Science. The research is the first to reveal exactly how “mechnotransduction,” or the sensing of changes in pressure, works in these cells.”Tight regulation of blood pressure is essential for health,” says Wei-Zheng Zeng, PhD, a postdoctoral associate at Scripps Research and first author of the study. “Blood pressure is acutely sensed by baroreceptor neurons, but the mechanism of how baroreceptors sense blood pressure remained a mystery for more than 100 years.”Related StoriesNew ACC/AHA guidelines could improve detection of gestational hypertensionSchwann cells capable of generating protective myelin over nerves finds researchDon’t Miss the Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery (B3DD) Summit this AugustThe two proteins–PIEZO1 and PIEZO2–were originally discovered in the lab of study senior author Ardem Patapoutian, PhD, a Scripps Research professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. In just the past few years, it’s become clear PIEZOs do a lot of work. The Patapoutian lab has shown PIEZOs are responsible for sensing pressure in the lungs, different kinds of pain and soft touch. PIEZO1 even helps red blood cells keep their shape.The scientists focused on PIEZOs as possible players in the baroreceptor reflex because the genes for PIEZO1 and 2 are expressed in sensory neurons responsible for the reflex. Indeed, in the recent experiments with a mouse model, the scientists found that both PIEZOs are necessary for maintaining blood pressure through the reflex.”Our motivation for this study was rooted in basic science, yet these findings could have major translational implications by improving our understanding of human health,” says Patapoutian.While it is still basic research at this point, scientists think PIEZO1 and 2 in baroreceptors may work as possible therapeutic targets to help people with “drug-resistant hypertension,” a common clinical disorder defined as uncontrolled high blood pressure by drugs, says Zeng.”Knowing the identity of the sensors for blood pressure control gives us an idea of how to develop better therapies to treat patients who suffer from drug-resistant hypertension, or any other problems with blood pressure control,” says Kara Marshall, PhD, postdoctoral associate at Scripps Research and co-author of the study.The scientists recommend further studies of how PIEZO1 and PIEZO2 work together and how they may function in different populations of neurons. “We are also interested in understanding how human genetic changes in the function of these proteins might affect blood pressure regulation,” says Marshall. Source:https://www.scripps.edu/news-and-events/press-room/2018/20181030-blood-flow-patapoutian.html
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More information: Jianqiu Deng et al. Sodium-Ion Batteries: From Academic Research to Practical Commercialization, Advanced Energy Materials (2017). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201701428 Jianqiu Deng et al. High Energy Density Sodium-Ion Battery with Industrially Feasible and Air-Stable O3-Type Layered Oxide Cathode, Advanced Energy Materials (2017). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201701610 Provided by University of Wollongong Despite sodium’s appeal as a low-cost, abundant and environmentally friendly building block for energy storage, it is a relatively new entrant in the field of battery technology research and development.A key issue for sodium-ion batteries is that many of the active materials used in their chemistry are sensitive to air—exposure to even a few molecules of air can degrade the material and reduce battery performance.This has also meant specialised equipment is needed to eliminate air to process the materials, driving up their cost.Powerful and feasibleTackling both the material performance and the industrial feasibility issues, researchers at the University of Wollongong (UOW) Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM) have successfully developed a material based on transition metals that is not sensitive to air and can therefore be mass produced much more easily.The material has the added benefit of excellent cycling stability, increasing its attractiveness to commercial battery manufacturers.”One of the ongoing issues for batteries is cycle life, or how many times it can charge and discharge effectively,” lead researcher Dr. Wenbin Luo said.”We were able to build upon previous research to manufacture proof-of-concept battery cells to show the performance of this material, and it showed fantastic energy density and cycle life.”In addition, we developed the processes to cheaply and easily manufacture this material, which is a big part of making it attractive for commercialisation.”The next step is to optimise the material to get maximum amount of cycles out of the batteries, which will be a key factor in the commercial viability of sodium-ion batteries.”With new materials and processing techniques we can focus on further development that will pave the way for the transition to commercialisation of this exciting and much-needed alternative to lithium-ion batteries.” Making sodium-ion batteries that last Explore further This material, reported recently in the journal Advanced Energy Materials, was developed as a collaboration between researchers from ISEM and Guilin University of Electronic Technology in China and provides a major step forward in the development of sodium-ion batteries for practical applications.From lab to production lineIn a second paper, also published recently in the journal Advanced Energy Materials, researchers from ISEM were invited to review the current state of sodium-ion battery research worldwide, particularly the factors holding back wider commercialisation of the technology.Sodium-ion battery development is a hotly contested research area in energy materials and the review paper provides a thorough understanding of the research and development landscape.Though sodium-ion can’t compete with lithium in personal electronics because of its lower energy density, it is seen as a viable alternative for large-scale storage where the size of the battery is less of an issue.To date, much of the research has focused on fine-tuning the materials for the major components of the battery but little emphasis has been put on the making a complete cell.”Commercial full-cell design includes optimising capacity balancing between the cathode and the anode, finding a stable electrolyte solution, choosing appropriate additives and binders, selecting a separator, as well as the production costs of the active materials for the electrodes and the overall manufacturing cost of the batteries,” Dr. Luo said.”This is not always a straightforward process, as many of these parameters are interdependent, so there is a significant amount of trial-and-error in selecting the best combination of design parameters.”Our review paper shows the depth of research showing optimisation of a single component or material, but also the lack of research bringing all the parts together in concert.”In the review paper, the researchers identify key indicators for commercial feasibility, including stability to air and moisture contact, the cost of materials and fabrication, electrochemical performance, cycle life, anode and cathode compatibility and environmental friendliness.”To a large extent, how the cycling performance, or battery lifespan, satisfies the requirements of large energy storage systems will determine its commercialisation progress,” Dr. Luo said.”For large-scale storage, we need to develop batteries that provide a long life-span to justify the investment.” Journal information: Advanced Energy Materials ISEM research fellow Dr Wenbin Luo (centre) with full-cell sodium-ion battery pouch. Credit: University of Wollongong Citation: Sodium-ion battery packs a punch (2018, April 5) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-sodium-ion-battery.html A new sodium-ion battery chemistry that shows superior performance to existing state-of-the-art sodium-based batteries could be the catalyst to enabling mass-production of the emerging technology for large-scale energy storage, such as in applications including storing solar power for industrial sites. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(c)2019 U.S. TodayDistributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. Point a camera at yourself, attract an audience and get rewarded for your efforts by YouTube. Pose with a product and make money from brands on Instagram. Develop a following on Facebook, and the social network will share ad revenues with you.Quit your job (or school), become a social media “influencer” and potentially make tens of thousands of dollars, if not even millions.It’s not easy to pull off, but if David Dobrik, Colleen Ballinger and Joey Graceffa could do it, why not you?The trio is among the 90,000 social media fans, stars and industry pros who will descend on Anaheim this week, as early as Wednesday night, for the annual fan fest/industry gathering that is known as VidCon.Here, young fans arrive with their parents hoping to meet and greet with their favorite YouTubers, while many would-be YouTubers come to learn from experts like Graceffa about how to succeed as an influencer.”YouTube still dominates because it pays the most revenues to creators,” says Joe Gagliese, the co-founder of Viral Nation, which represents influencers and works with brands on their marketing campaigns. “And Instagram is getting close, in terms of importance to influencers.”Facebook-owned Instagram doesn’t pay creators for posting their work. Instead, they go to agencies like ViralNation, which sells their posts to brands.Facebook itself for years has talked about sharing ad revenues with creators via its Watch program, but the program to offer ads in exchange for revenues is being used by just tens of thousands of people, says Facebook, compared to “millions” on YouTube, according to the company.Additionally, Facebook’s entry hurdles are stricter than YouTube: 10,000 followers and 30,000 one-minute views of three-minute videos, versus 1,000 followers and 4,000 minutes of watch time.VidCon is 10 years old, YouTube is 14 years old and established stars like Graceffa, PewDiePie and Ryan, the 7-year-old kid who reviews toys, have built giant fan bases, attracting multimillions of views daily.Is it too late to get in? Even after all these years, the offer still sounds really enticing. Citation: On YouTube or Instagram? Here’s what it takes to make money as social media ‘influencer’ (2019, July 12) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-youtube-instagram-money-social-media.html Explore further Not according to Gagliese. “Honestly, it’s never too late,” he says. “YouTube has more viewers this year than last year and new influencers are emerging from all over the world.”How much money can you make? It depends on how many people watch your videos, or follow you on Instagram.Gagliese spells it out for us:YOUTUBE:Between 6 to 12 cents per view. So on the low end, a July video exploring Japanese vending machines by the young YouTuber named Safiya Nygaard brought in 6.8 million views, which could already be worth $408,000.INSTAGRAM:This depends upon the influencer and their level of engagement, but a “micro-influencer,” one with 10,000 to 50,000 active fans, “used to only pick up only a couple hundred bucks, now they’re getting a few thousand per post,” he says.Influencers with up to 1 million followers will see $10,000 per post, while 1 million followers and up can charge $100,000 or more.The most popular influencers are bringing in $250,000 to $500,000 per post, for posing with brands and featuring them on their Instagram Story pages, which allow direct links back to the brand, he adds.But it’s not easy.”People underestimate how hard it is,” says Gagliese. It’s a regular full-time job writing, shooting and editing videos and uploading them, adding all the correct tags and descriptions to make sure they get discovered, and that’s just today’s work. On the next day, they have to continue and do it all over again, hustling to build an audience.And once they do that, he adds, they have to keep it up.”They have to stay on top of everything.”And since you’re judged by how many followers or views you have, a cottage industry has emerged of shady companies offering to “buy” views and followers, which leads to digital “influencer fraud,” something brands are very concerned about.Tim Sovay, the chief operating officer of marketing agency CreatorIQ is on a mission to weed out fraud.”Brands want a better understanding of who they’re partnering with, and what the social metrics really are,” he says.Meanwhile, besides talking up issues like fraud and how to legitimately get more views in industry sessions at VidCon, the real action is on the trade show floor, where fans get to meet their favorite online celebs.VidCon “is a convergence of modern-day pop culture, celebrity and fandom,” Sovay says. “The most culturally relevant celebrities, for 13- to 24-year-olds, are on the floor, and there’s a fandom unlike anywhere else.” And brands like M&Ms, Taco Bell and Kia are on the floor as well, to “try and find organic ways to integrate into the event, to get their message in front of the fans.”VidCon’s trade show floor opens Thursday, and the convention concludes Saturday night. Fan tickets start at $170. YouTube looks to dilute nasty programming with curated educational playlists Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
P S Gopikrishnan Unnithan ThrissurJuly 13, 2019UPDATED: July 13, 2019 09:24 IST Image for representation (Photo: Pinterest)HIGHLIGHTSInmates of Viyyur’s Central Prison will deliver a chicken combo meal by using SwiggyAt Rs 127, the combo includes chicken biryani, chicken curry, chapatis, pickle, salad and waterFor the past few years prison inmates have been running ‘Freedom Food Factory’, a canteenKerala’s cuisine is famous throughout the country. Be it the traditional tapioca-fish curry or idiyappam with curry or the iconic Thalaserry chicken biryani or the ishtu-appam combo. Now these delicious dishes are being cooked and delivered by some very unlikely cooks.In a first of its kind initiative, Central Prison, Viyyur in Thrissur district of Kerala is offering a chicken biryani combo, served in a banana leaf with a bottle of drinking water.If you are a little hesitant or embarrassed to step into a jail compound, don’t worry, you can just get it home-delivered. Viyyur jail authorities have tied up with food delivery app Swiggy to deliver food at customers’ doorsteps.For the past few years prison inmates have been running a canteen, ‘Freedom Food Factory’. Now the services will reach a wider consumer base.Right from preparation to packing, the whole process is carried out by the inmates of Central Prison. In a bid to spread the message of being eco friendly, the parcel is delivered in paper bags made by jail inmates.The combo includes 300 gm of biryani rice, a fried chicken leg piece, chicken curry, four chapatis, pickle, salad and a bottle of water. All this comes for Rs 127 only. Customers will also have the option of not buying the water, which would bring down the price of the combo to Rs 117.Initially, the delivery will be restricted to a 6-km radius of the jail in Thrissur city. The project was launched on Thursday in the presence of Superintendent NS Nirmalandan Nair and other officers.Officials from the food safety department were also present. The combo was an instant hit as prison authorities had to close the listing from Swiggy in 20 minutes due to over booking.Kerala jails have been in the food business for many years now. Under the brand name ‘Food for Freedom’ they have opened a restaurant near the central jail in Thiruvananthapuram, which has become a huge hit.The iconic jail chapati with veg or non-veg curry is available through mobile sales units which run across the state.For Central Prison, Viyyur, online food delivery is the latest offering alongside organic farming, a volleyball team and its own music band among others.Also read | Jailhouse Blues | KeralaAlso read | 4 places in Delhi that serve the best food from KeralaFor the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted byAnumika Bahukhandi Prison platter: Kerala jail ties up with Swiggy to deliver foodInmates of Viyyur’s Central Prison will deliver a chicken combo meal by using Swiggy.advertisement Next