Hwange Colliery Company Limited (HCCL.zw) listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange under the Mining sector has released it’s 2011 annual report.For more information about Hwange Colliery Company Limited (HCCL.zw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Hwange Colliery Company Limited (HCCL.zw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Hwange Colliery Company Limited (HCCL.zw) 2011 annual report.Company ProfileHwange Colliery Company Limited extracts, processes and distributes raw coal and coal products in Zimbabwe and sub-Saharan Africa. The Hwange Coalfield and Chaba Mine are located in the north-western region of Zimbabwe; its head office is in the capital city, Harare. Hwange Colliery operates in three segments; mining, medical services and estate management. The Mining division operates in categories that include thermal coal, industrial coal and coking coal. The coke categories include foundry coke, metallurgical coke, coke peas and coke breeze. The by-products include benzole, tar naphthalene and coke oven gas. The Medical Services division manages a healthcare service for its employees and local communities in the mining areas. The estate management division provides and manages properties for rental and sells retail goods and services. Hwange Colliery Company Limited is listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange
Equity Bank Limited (EQTY.ke) listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2017 presentation For more information about Equity Bank Limited (EQTY.ke) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Equity Bank Limited (EQTY.ke) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Equity Bank Limited (EQTY.ke) 2017 presentation Company ProfileEquity Bank Limited is a financial services institution in Kenya providing banking products and services for the personal, commercial and corporate sectors. The company offers a full-service offering ranging from transactional accounts and digital banking to school fees collection, custody investment and group accounts, trade finance, asset finance and microfinance loans. Equity Bank (Kenya) Limited is a subsidiary of Equity Group Holdings Limited and its head office is in Nairobi, Kenya. Equity Bank Limited is listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange
Deployed House / Seinfeld Arquitectos CopyAbout this officeSeinfeld ArquitectosOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesLimaPeruPublished on February 23, 2013Cite: “Deployed House / Seinfeld Arquitectos ” [Casa Desplegada / Seinfeld Arquitectos] 23 Feb 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Houses 2016 House in Viladecavalls / Albert Brito ArquitecturaSave this projectSaveHouse in Viladecavalls / Albert Brito Arquitectura House in Viladecavalls / Albert Brito Arquitectura Architects: Albert Brito Arquitectura Area Area of this architecture project Area: 260 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Save this picture!© Flavio Coddou+ 20Curated by Danae Santibañez Share ArchDaily “COPY” Manufacturers: ISAVAL, Saint-Gobain, ArcorCollaborators:Victor Peña, Paula Poblet, Inma Hervés, Martí Cabestany, Marc Encinas, Xavier Gotzens.City:BarcelonaCountry:SpainMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Flavio CoddouRecommended ProductsWoodBlumer LehmannFree Form Structures for Wood ProjectsWoodSculptformTimber Click-on BattensFiber Cements / CementsRieder GroupFacade Panels – concrete skinWoodBruagBalcony BalustradesText description provided by the architects. Viladecavalls is located on a small raised hill in Vallès area that makes that it has a dominant position to the territory. Located in an urban area with a garden city configuration and a dispersed and very heterogeneous architecture, the plot is behind the village and facing the landscape without any obstacle in front that can cover the view towards the territory.Save this picture!ElevationThe project tries to incorporate the limit situation in which it is. On one side the village, isolated houses, urbanization. On the other side the landscape, the territory, the views towards Montserrat mountain. This duality builds the house geometry, its situation within the plot and the typology adopted.Save this picture!© Flavio CoddouSave this picture!Floor PlanSave this picture!© Flavio CoddouThe house dialogues with the traditional architecture and is inspired by the traditional Catalan houses on the other side of the valley. Like the architecture of the Masia, made by addition of elements, the house is formed by four perfect squared volumes, each different size which respond to the needs of the program that is requested and to the required structural and climatic needs. These volumes respond to this landscape-urbanization duality. Its position follows the guidelines that mark the geometry of the site, but at the same time opens it to the views. In this way concave and convex zones are generated around the house that enrich the interstitial spaces of the plot avoiding residual spaces.Save this picture!AxonometricWith this desire to be reflected in catalan popular architecture and to respond to the area typologies, each volume that form the house has a sloping roof that, diagonally to the structure and responding to the constructive logic, drains to the most optimal area away from the other volumes.Save this picture!© Flavio CoddouFinally, the house is built with wood frame structure for two reasons. On the one hand, the low quality terrain required a house as light as possible and on the other hand this solution allowed us to act with criteria of sustainability and high energy efficiency in the facades, making this a very comfortable place to live, so in winter and in summer almost no active air conditioning systems are needed to reach high levels of comfort.Save this picture!© Flavio CoddouProject gallerySee allShow lessRE / Camarim ArquitectosSelected ProjectsHE-Restaurant / GOASelected Projects Share CopyHouses•Barcelona, Spain Spain Photographs: Flavio Coddou Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/871384/1403-mm-casa-en-viladecavalls-albert-brito-arquitectura Clipboard Projects Year: ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/871384/1403-mm-casa-en-viladecavalls-albert-brito-arquitectura Clipboard “COPY” Photographs CopyAbout this officeAlbert Brito ArquitecturaOfficeFollowProductsWoodConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesBarcelonaSpainPublished on January 04, 2018Cite: “House in Viladecavalls / Albert Brito Arquitectura” 04 Jan 2018. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Home Indiana Agriculture News Bill Introduced in House to Stop Clean Water Act Expansion Source: NAFB News Service By Gary Truitt – Apr 27, 2012 NCBA Supports Measure to Stop Clean Water Act ManipulationThe legislation introduced Friday to prevent the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers from using their clean water guidance to expand the regulatory regime under the Clean Water Act has the support of the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association and the Public Lands Council. According to NCBA President J.D. Alexander – the Administration has used guidance documents as opposed to going through the rulemaking process – which allows government officials to bypass the consideration of legal, economic and unintended consequences. While the guidance claims to provide clarity and certainty to landowners – PLC President John Falen says the only thing livestock producers can be clear and certain about if the guidance is finalized is more federal regulation and costly permits.Despite three Supreme Court rulings and a letter from 170 members of Congress opposing the guidance – Alexander says EPA and the Corps have crowned themselves kings of every drop of water in the country. He says the bill introduced by the leaders of the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee and the Agriculture Committee is the best path forward in preventing the guidance from becoming reality. Previous articleFarm Bureau Supports Approval of New Corn VarietyNext articleBeef Futures Markets Bounce Back Slightly after BSE Reports Gary Truitt Bill Introduced in House to Stop Clean Water Act Expansion SHARE Facebook Twitter Legislation has been introduced in the House to stop attempts by the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers to expand federal power under the Clean Water Act and extend the government’s regulatory reach to every ditch, puddle and pond in the country. The bill – H.R. 4965 – was introduced by leaders of the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee and the Agriculture Committee. It would prohibit the Obama Administration from finalizing or implementing the EPA and Corps Clean Water Act guidance to broaden the scope of federal jurisdiction under the Act.Ag Committee Chair Frank Lucas says the new authorities granted in this guidance would mean farm ponds, stock tanks and seasonal runoff ditches could conceivably be included under new regulations. He says the economic impact on farmers, ranchers and rural communities would be devastating. Lucas says the President and his EPA must stop the pattern of over-regulation and intrusion into individual and state rights.Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Chair John Mica says the Administration is doing everything it can to increase costs and regulatory burdens for American businesses, farmers and individual property owners. He notes this federal jurisdiction grab has been opposed by Congress for years – and says the Obama Administration and its agencies are ignoring law and rulemaking procedures in order to tighten the regulatory grip over every water body in the nation. According to Mica – the Administration needs to realize it’s not above the law. SHARE Facebook Twitter
Facebook TAGS By Digital AIM Web Support – February 18, 2021 WhatsApp Local NewsBusiness DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Feb 18, 2021– The “Global Motion Control Market By System, By Component, By End User, By Region, Industry Analysis and Forecast, 2020 – 2026” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering. The Global Motion Control Market size is expected to reach $18.1 billion by 2026, rising at a market growth of 4.2% CAGR during the forecast period. A motion-control system initiates and also controls the load movement to perform work. This system is able to control the speed, position, and torque in a very precise manner. The motion control is used in those applications that require positioning of a product, synchronizing separate elements, or the quick start and stop of motion. Motion control systems consist of three basic components including a controller, amplifier or drive, and motor. The major factor that is driving the growth of the motion control market is the increasing adoption of advanced processes for factory automation. In the past few years, there has been increased adoption of a motion control system as it is user-friendly and easy integration of the components in the motion control system. However, the higher cost of maintenance of motion control systems may hamper the growth of the market. Furthermore, the Industrial Revolution 4.0 offers productive growth opportunities for the market players. There are numerous players in the motion control market and they are adopting different growth strategies such as product launch, business acquisition, product development, and business expansion to flourish in the market. For example, in 2018, Rockwell Automation brought an updated version of the Allen-Bradley Motion Analyzer software tool into the market. This updated software gives an optimized experience to users with workflow product selection and intuitive navigation. This in turn helps engineers to design complete motion control systems that work efficiently for their machines. In the COVID-19 crisis, there is increasing adoption of automation in industrial facilities as it is beneficial in securing the health and safety of the employee. Moreover, high adoption of automated processes in the manufacturing sector, and safety-enabled output in industries owing to strict safety rules posed by governments are some of the factors fueling the market. Over past few years, with the advancement in technology, industrial robots are highly in demand especially in the manufacturing processes as well as integration of IoT in motion control systems is expected to drive the growth of the motion control market. Companies ProfiledABB GroupRobert Bosch GmbHMitsubishi Electric CorporationParker-Hannifin CorporationRockwell Automation, Inc.Schneider Electric SESiemens AGOmron CorporationFANUC CorporationYaskawa Electric Corporation Unique Offerings from the PublisherExhaustive coverageHighest number of market tables and figuresSubscription based model availableGuaranteed best priceAssured post sales research support with 10% customization free Key Topics Covered: Chapter 1. Market Scope & Methodology Chapter 2. Market Overview 2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 Overview 2.1.2 Market Composition and Scenario 2.2 Key Factors Impacting the Market 2.2.1 Market Drivers 2.2.2 Market Restraints Chapter 3. Competition Analysis – Global 3.1 Cardinal Matrix 3.2 Recent Industry Wide Strategic Developments 3.2.1 Partnerships, Collaborations and Agreements 3.2.2 Product Launches and Product Expansions 3.2.3 Geographical Expansions 3.2.4 Acquisition and Mergers 3.3 Top Winning Strategies 3.3.1 Key Leading Strategies: Percentage Distribution (2016-2020) 3.3.2 Key Strategic Move: (Product Launches and Product Expansions : 2016, Sep – 2020, Dec) Leading Players Chapter 4. Global Motion Control Market by System 4.1 Global Close Loop Motion Control Market by Region 4.2 Global Open Loop Motion Control Market by Region Chapter 5. Global Motion Control Market by Component 5.1 Global Motion Control Motors Market by Region 5.2 Global Motion Control Actuators & Mechanical systems Market by Region 5.3 Global Motion Control Motion Controllers Market by Region 5.4 Global Motion Control Sensor & Feedback Devices Market by Region 5.5 Global Motion Control Drives Market by Region 5.6 Global Other Component Motion Control Market by Region Chapter 6. Global Motion Control Market by End User 6.1 Global Automotive Motion Control Market by Region 6.2 Global Food & Beverage Motion Control Market by Region 6.3 Global Semiconductor & Electronics Motion Control Market by Region 6.4 Global Medical, Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Motion Control Market by Region 6.5 Global Metal & Machinery Manufacturing Motion Control Market by Region 6.6 Global Aerospace & Defense Motion Control Market by Region 6.7 Global Others Motion Control Market by Region Chapter 7. Global Motion Control Market by Region 7.1 North America Motion Control Market 7.2 Europe Motion Control Market 7.3 Asia Pacific Motion Control Market 7.4 LAMEA Motion Control Market Chapter 8. Company Profiles For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/7yzzu6 View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210218005572/en/ CONTACT: ResearchAndMarkets.com Laura Wood, Senior Press Manager [email protected] For E.S.T Office Hours Call 1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call 1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 KEYWORD: INDUSTRY KEYWORD: TECHNOLOGY HARDWARE SEMICONDUCTOR SOURCE: Research and Markets Copyright Business Wire 2021. PUB: 02/18/2021 07:38 AM/DISC: 02/18/2021 07:38 AM http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210218005572/en Twitter Facebook Pinterest Twitter Previous articleView Smart Windows Transform St. John’s Terminal, Oxford Properties’ Flagship US Development in New York CityNext articleDjokovic keeps perfect record in Australian Open semifinals Digital AIM Web Support Pinterest Worldwide Motion Control Market to 2026 – Industry Analysis and Forecasts – ResearchAndMarkets.com WhatsApp
TAGS Pinterest Twitter Facebook WhatsApp Blackstone Resources presents new achievements of Blackstone Technology Facebook Local NewsBusiness WhatsApp By Digital AIM Web Support – February 19, 2021 Twitter Pinterest Blackstone Technology, CEO Holger Gritzka Previous articleOnline Symposium by JETRO – Future Society After the Pandemic, Expectations for EXPO 2025, and the Potential of the Osaka Kansai RegionNext articleHITN Estrena Un Documental Exclusivo Sobre La Vida Y Obra Del Dr. Fauci Digital AIM Web Support
Freddie Mac NPL 2019-11-21 Seth Welborn in Daily Dose, Featured, Market Studies, News Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago About Author: Seth Welborn Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Home / Daily Dose / Freddie Mac Settles $22M Non-Performing Loan Sale Related Articles Previous: Industry Impact: Fed Identifies Economic Threats Next: Gateway First Bank Appoints New CCO Share Save November 21, 2019 1,803 Views The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Seth Welborn is a Reporter for DS News and MReport. A graduate of Harding University, he has covered numerous topics across the real estate and default servicing industries. Additionally, he has written B2B marketing copy for Dallas-based companies such as AT&T. An East Texas Native, he also works part-time as a photographer. Tagged with: Freddie Mac NPL Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Print This Post The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Freddie Mac Settles $22M Non-Performing Loan Sale Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Sign up for DS News Daily Freddie Mac has announced it sold via auction 87 non-performing residential first-lien loans (NPLs) serviced by Specialized Loan Servicing LLC to VRMTG ACQ, LLC, a minority and woman-owned business. The sold pool included $22.0 million in UPB and an average loan balance of $253,100. The sale is part of Freddie Mac’s Extended Timeline Pool Offering (EXPO) and the transaction is expected to settle in February 2020. Freddie Mac, through its advisors, began marketing the transaction on October 8, 2019 to potential bidders, including non-profit organizations and Minority, Women, Disabled, LGBT, Veteran or Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Businesses (MWDOBs), neighborhood advocacy organizations and private investors active in the NPL market.Given the delinquency status of the loans, the borrowers have likely been previously evaluated for or are already in various stages of loss mitigation, including modification or other alternatives to foreclosure, or are in foreclosure. Mortgages that were previously modified and subsequently became delinquent comprise approximately 69% of the pool balance.To date, Freddie Mac has sold over $8 billion of NPLs and securitized more than $59 billion of RPLs consisting of $29 billion in fully guaranteed PCs, $25 billion in Seasoned Credit Risk Transfer (SCRT) senior/sub securitizations, and $6 billion in Seasoned Loan Structured Transaction offerings.Earlier this month, Freddie Mac announced pricing of the fourth Seasoned Credit Risk Transfer Trust (SCRT) offering of 2019—a rated securitization of approximately $2.3 billion including both guaranteed senior and unguaranteed subordinate securities backed by a pool of seasoned re-performing loans (RPLs).Freddie Mac Seasoned Credit Risk Transfer Trust, Series 2019-4 includes approximately $2.1 billion in guaranteed senior certificates and approximately $229 million in unguaranteed mezzanine and subordinate certificates. The transaction is expected to settle on November 14, 2019. The underlying collateral consists of 12,347 fixed- and step-rate, seasoned RPLs which were modified to assist borrowers who were at risk of foreclosure to help them keep their homes. As of the cutoff date, all of the mortgage loans have been performing for at least 12 months. Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Subscribe
Mere Discrimination On Ground Of ‘Sex’ Without Sexual Undertones Not ‘Sexual Harassment’ Under POSH Act: Kerala High Court
News UpdatesMere Discrimination On Ground Of ‘Sex’ Without Sexual Undertones Not ‘Sexual Harassment’ Under POSH Act: Kerala High Court LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK8 Dec 2020 1:39 AMShare This – xThe Kerala High Court has held that the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013, does not contemplate a situation of discrimination on the basis of sex if there is no express or implied sexual advance, sexual undertone or unwelcome behaviour which has a sexual tone behind it The court observed that any form of sexual approach…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Kerala High Court has held that the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013, does not contemplate a situation of discrimination on the basis of sex if there is no express or implied sexual advance, sexual undertone or unwelcome behaviour which has a sexual tone behind it The court observed that any form of sexual approach or behaviour that is unwelcome will come under the definition of ‘sexual harassment’ under the Act, the bench comprising Justices AM Shaffique and P. Gopinath observed while upholding a single bench judgment [ Anil Rajagopal v. State of Kerala and Others [2017 (5) KHC 217].The division bench was answering a reference from the single bench which opined that the judgment in Anil Rajagopal requires reconsideration to the extent it construed the provisions contained in Sections 2(n) and 3(2) of the Act, 2013. The petitioner’s contention was that harassment can be meted out against an individual in different forms and only in instances where the harassment has an element of sexual advance in some form, it becomes a sexual harassment. It was contended that mere difference in sex between two individuals cannot give rise to a sexual harassment even though there might be harassment. On the other hand, the respondent contended that any form of sexual intimidation or discrimination or behaviour which tends to attract harassment only on account of difference in sex can also be characterized as sexual harassment.Referring to Section 2(n) of the Act, the bench observed:Apparently it is an inclusive definition and only a few unwelcoming acts or behaviour had been mentioned at subclauses (i) to (v). There might be other instances as well. Any such behaviour which is unwelcome could be either direct or indirect. Sub-clauses (i) to (v) are only instances of unwelcome acts or behaviour, but while interpreting a statute, we will have to derive the meaning of the word “sexual harassment” taking into account sub-clauses (i) to (v) as well. Sub-clauses (i) to (v) are all illustrations. But when an allegation of sexual harassment is made, though not coming within the parameters as specified in sub-clauses (i) to (v), the act should have something to do with a sexual advance either directly or by implication. Going by the statute, only a few unwelcome acts had been delineated under sub-clauses (i) to (v). It is possible that there might be other unwelcome acts or behaviour which would amount to a sexual advance or demand which the woman feels to be annoyed on account of the fact that she is a woman.The court said that, in order to constitute sexual harassment, definitely there should be an attempt on the part of the wrongdoer to do some act which was unwelcome or by way of behaviour, either directly or by implication makes the victim to feel that it amounts to sexual harassment. Referring to Section 3, it said:Section 3 creates an absolute prohibition to subject a women to sexual harassment at workplace. There also, sub-section (2) of Section 3 emphasises on any act or behaviour of sexual harassment. Clauses (i) to (v) are instances which may occur in a workplace. But still, a bare reading of sub-section (2) indicates that the circumstances mentioned in clauses (i) to (v) are not exhaustive. The words ‘among other circumstances’ clarifies the said position. Any such circumstances, if it occurs, or is present in relation to or connected with any act or behaviour of sexual harassment alone can be treated as sexual harassment. In other words, any act which tends to affect the women in the form of clauses (i) to (v) in Section 3(2) would amount to sexual harassment only if such eventualities occur and should be in relation to or connected with any act or behavior of sexual harassment. The purport of Section 3(2) is that, if any of the eventualities mentioned under clauses (i) to (v) or any other circumstances occur, it should be in relation to or connected with any act or behaviour of sexual harassment.The court also noted that the 2013 Act does not contemplate a situation of discrimination on the basis of sex whereas it specifically deals with sexual harassment in the workplace. Answering the reference, the bench observed:”Therefore, the very concept of sexual harassment in a workplace against a woman should start from an express or implied sexual advance, sexual undertone or unwelcome behaviour which has a sexual tone behind it without which provisions of Act 2013 will not apply. In Anil Rajagopal (supra) also, this Court had while interpreting 2013 Act had arrived at the very same finding. . In the result, we do not think that Anil Rajagopal (supra) requires any reconsideration. We would only clarify that any form of sexual approach or behaviour that is unwelcome will come under the definition of ‘sexual harassment’ and it is not confined to any of the sub clauses mentioned in Section 2(n), which of course will depend upon the materials placed on record and on a case to case basis. But it is made clear that in order to take action under the 2013 Act, the acts complained of should come within the purview of S.2(n) and Section 3 of the Act or any other form of sexual treatment or sexual behaviour on the part of the respondent.”Case: DR.PRASAD PANNIAN vs. CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF KERALA [WP(C).No.9219 OF 2020(B)] Coram: Justices AM Shaffique and P. Gopinath Counsel: SR. ADV. S. SREEKUMAR, ADV SURYA BINOY, for petitioner, ADV V.SAJITH KUMAR, ADV REKHA VASUDEVAN for respondents.Click here to Read/Download JudgmentRead JudgmentSubscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. 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ColumnsDoes Election Commission Possess The Power To De-Register A Political Party Yuvraj Francis10 Feb 2021 12:36 AMShare This – xIn India, not every association requires to get itself registered by the Election Commission. Only an association or body of individual citizens of India referring to itself as a political party and intending to avail itself of the provisions of Part-IV-A which relates to registration of political parties of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, is required to get…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginIn India, not every association requires to get itself registered by the Election Commission. Only an association or body of individual citizens of India referring to itself as a political party and intending to avail itself of the provisions of Part-IV-A which relates to registration of political parties of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, is required to get itself registered with the Election Commission of India. Part-IV-A of the Representation of the People Act contains three sections, Section 29A deals with registration of associations and bodies as political parties, Section 29B deals with political parties entitled to accept contributions and Sections 29C deals with declarations of donations received by the political parties. Section 29A was inserted through the Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 1988. It was inserted as it was deemed necessary that the election law should define political party and lay down the procedure for its registration. Before Section 29-A of the Act came into force, the political parties were registered under the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968. However, Part-IV-A does not provide any section for de-registration of a political parties. The entire Representation of the People Act, 1951 does not provide any mechanism for de-registration of a political party. The question may arise as to why the Parliament decided to omit de-registering of a political party when it had included provisions for registration of political parties. The Supreme Court has observed that Parliament may have deliberately omitted to vest the Election Commission of India with the power to de-register a political party and this may be for the reason that under the Constitution of India, the Election Commission of India is required to function independently and ensure free and fair elections. An enquiry into non-compliance with the conditions for the grant of registration might involve the Commission in matters of a political nature and could mean monitoring by the Commission of the political activities, programmes and ideologies of political parties. In 2016, the then Chief Election Commissioner Dr. Nasim Zaidi had recommended 47 proposals of Electoral Reforms pertaining to decriminalisation of politics, prevention of abuse of money, transparency in funding of political parties, making bribery an cognisable offence, criminalising paid news, empowering ECI to countermand election in cases of bribery and abuse on the lines of countermanding in event of both capturing. One of the reforms suggested by Dr. Nasim Zaidi was “de-registration of political parties. The Election Commission possesses the power to register a political party but it does not possess the power to de-register it. This was not the first instance when the Election Commission recommended this, in 1998 the Election Commission had sent proposals to the Government to amend the law and give it the authority to deregister parties and again in 2004, proposals for electoral reforms was sent to the Centre. However, the law was never amended. The closest the Election Commission reached with the amendment of the law was in 1994 when Representation of the People (Second Amendment) Bill was tabled before the Parliament. However, the Bill was never passed and could become an Act. The Representation of the People (Second Amendment) Bill proposed that a complaint can be made to the High Court within whose jurisdiction the main office of a political party is situated for cancelling the registration of the party on the ground that it bears a religious name, or that its memorandum or rules and regulations no longer conform to the provisions of the Act, or that its activities are not in accordance with the said memorandum or rules and regulations. The Supreme Court has provided certain exemptions to the lack of power to de-register a political party. The Supreme Court has held that there are three exceptions where the Commission can review its order registering a political party. One is where a political party obtained its registration by playing fraud on the Commission, secondly, it arises out of sub-section (9) of Section 29-A of the Act and thirdly, any like ground where no enquiry is called for on the part of the Election Commission, for example, where the political party concerned is declared unlawful by the Central Government under the provision of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 or any other similar law. Therefore, if a party does not have faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India or to the principles of socialism, secularism and democracy, or it would not uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India so as to comply with the provisions of Section 29-A(5). In such cases, the very substratum on which the party obtained registration is knocked off and the Commission in its ancillary power can undo the registration of a political party. However, the ancillary and incidental power of the Commission cannot be extended to a case where a registered political party admits that it has faith in the Constitution and principles of socialism, secularism and democracy, but some people repudiate such admission and call for an enquiry by the Election Commission, reason being, an incidental and ancillary power of a statutory authority is not the substitute of an express power of review. In 2014, the Supreme Court had requested the Law Commission requested the Law Commission to examine whether the Election Commission should be conferred the power to derecognise a political party.  In 2017, the Madras High Court had requested the Centre to take a call and take a decision as expeditiously as possible on the recommendation made by the Election Commission of India in 1998 to amend the Representation of People Act (RPA) so as to provide Election Commission power to deregister a political parties violating the Constitution of India. The recommendations made to grant the Election Commission with the power to de-register has still not led to legislative action. The question that arises is how much does this lack of power result in lack of control over political parties which engage in communal and decisive politics and also the political parties registered solely to derive tax benefits granted to political parties under the Income Tax Act, 1961. Views are personal.(Author is a Practicing Lawyer at the Supreme Court of India)  “Registration of Political Paties”, Election Commission of India.  Indian National Congress (I) Vs. Institute of Social Welfare (2002) 5 SCC 685  Press Information Bureau: Need for undertaking comprehensive review of the Representation of the People Act: Dr Nasim Zaidi. 3rd December 2016  “What is in a Name?” Article by MG Devasahayam. Published in India Legal.  “Election Commission wants power to deregister political parties”. Published in Hindustan Times on 11th February 2018  “What is in a Name?” Article by MG Devasahayam. Published in India Legal  Indian National Congress (I) Vs. Institute of Social Welfare (2002) 5 SCC 685  Pravasi Bhalai Sangathan Vs. Union of India (2014) 11 SCC 477  “Can EC deregister political parties? Madras HC asks Centre to take a call”. Published in Times of India on 05th September 2017. Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Story